Look up dictionary

require(quanteda)
options(width = 110)
toks <- tokens(data_char_ukimmig2010)

tokens_lookup() is the most flexible dictionary lookup function in quanteda. We use geographical dictionary from the newsmap package as an example. Using dictionary(), you can import dictionary files in the Wordstat, LIWC, Yoshicoder, Lexicoder and YAML formats.

dict_newsmap <- dictionary(file = "../../dictionary/newsmap.yml")

Note that you can access the dictionary in various languages (currently English, German, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish) with the newsmap package.

The geographical dictionary comprises of names of countries and cities (and their demonyms) in a hierarchical structure (countries are nested in world regions and sub-regions).

length(dict_newsmap)
## [1] 5
names(dict_newsmap)
## [1] "AFRICA"  "AMERICA" "ASIA"    "EUROPE"  "OCEANIA"
names(dict_newsmap[["AFRICA"]])
## [1] "EAST"   "MIDDLE" "NORTH"  "SOUTH"  "WEST"
dict_newsmap[["AFRICA"]][["NORTH"]]
## Dictionary object with 8 key entries.
## - [DZ]:
##   - algeria, algerian*, algiers
## - [EG]:
##   - egypt, egyptian*, cairo
## - [LY]:
##   - libya, libyan*, tripoli
## - [MA]:
##   - morocco, moroccan*, rabat
## - [SD]:
##   - sudan, sudanese, khartoum
## - [SS]:
##   - south sudan, s sudan, s sudanese, juba
## [ reached max_nkey ... 2 more keys ]

The levels argument determines the keys to be recored in a resulting tokens object.

# use level of continents
toks_region <- tokens_lookup(toks, dictionary = dict_newsmap, levels = 1)
print(toks_region)
## Tokens consisting of 9 documents.
## BNP :
##  [1] "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE"
## [12] "EUROPE"
## [ ... and 62 more ]
## 
## Coalition :
## [1] "EUROPE"
## 
## Conservative :
## [1] "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE" "EUROPE"
## 
## Greens :
## [1] "EUROPE" "EUROPE"
## 
## Labour :
##  [1] "EUROPE"  "OCEANIA" "OCEANIA" "OCEANIA" "EUROPE"  "OCEANIA" "EUROPE"  "EUROPE"  "EUROPE"  "EUROPE" 
## [11] "EUROPE" 
## 
## LibDem :
## [1] "EUROPE"  "EUROPE"  "EUROPE"  "EUROPE"  "EUROPE"  "EUROPE"  "AMERICA"
## 
## [ reached max_ndoc ... 3 more documents ]
# use level of countries
toks_country <- tokens_lookup(toks, dictionary = dict_newsmap, levels = 3)
print(toks_country)
## Tokens consisting of 9 documents.
## BNP :
##  [1] "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB"
## [ ... and 62 more ]
## 
## Coalition :
## [1] "GB"
## 
## Conservative :
## [1] "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB"
## 
## Greens :
## [1] "GB" "GB"
## 
## Labour :
##  [1] "GB" "AU" "AU" "AU" "GB" "AU" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB"
## 
## LibDem :
## [1] "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "GB" "CA"
## 
## [ reached max_ndoc ... 3 more documents ]

You can also use run a keyword-in-context analysis by looking up the mentions of all African countries and the words surrounding the countries.

kwic(toks, dict_newsmap["AFRICA"])
## Keyword-in-context with 2 matches.                                                                            
##  [BNP, 3116] , with Rome and Ancient | Egypt  | being well known examples of
##  [BNP, 3149]   purpose. The Balkans, | Rwanda | , Indonesia, Ulster,

You can define your own dictionary by passing a named list of characters to dictionary().

dict <- dictionary(list(refugee = c("refugee*", "asylum*"),
                        worker = c("worker*", "employee*")))
print(dict)
## Dictionary object with 2 key entries.
## - [refugee]:
##   - refugee*, asylum*
## - [worker]:
##   - worker*, employee*
dict_toks <- tokens_lookup(toks, dictionary = dict)
print(dict_toks)
## Tokens consisting of 9 documents.
## BNP :
##  [1] "refugee" "worker"  "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "refugee"
## [11] "refugee" "refugee"
## [ ... and 2 more ]
## 
## Coalition :
## [1] "refugee"
## 
## Conservative :
## character(0)
## 
## Greens :
## [1] "worker"  "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "refugee"
## 
## Labour :
## [1] "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "worker"  "worker"  "worker"  "worker" 
## 
## LibDem :
## [1] "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "refugee" "refugee"
## 
## [ reached max_ndoc ... 3 more documents ]
dfm(dict_toks)
## Document-feature matrix of: 9 documents, 2 features (38.89% sparse) and 0 docvars.
##               features
## docs           refugee worker
##   BNP               12      2
##   Coalition          1      0
##   Conservative       0      0
##   Greens             4      1
##   Labour             4      4
##   LibDem             6      0
## [ reached max_ndoc ... 3 more documents ]

tokens_lookup() ignores multiple matches of dictionary values for the same key with the same token to avoide double counting. For example, if US = c("United States of America", "United States") is in your dictionary, you get “US” only once for a sequence of tokens "United" "States" "of" "America".