Multiple text files

require(quanteda)
require(readtext)

A second option is to load multiple text files at once that are stored in the same folder or subfolders. Again, path_data is the location of sample files on your computer.

path_data <- system.file("extdata/", package = "readtext")

Unlike the pre-formatted files, individual text files usually do not contain document-level variables. However, you can create document-level variables using the readtext package.

The directory /txt/UDHR contains text files (".txt”) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 13 languages.

dat_udhr <- readtext(paste0(path_data, "/txt/UDHR/*"))

If you are using Windows, you need might need to specify the encoding of the file by adding encoding = "utf-8". In this case, imported texts might appear like <U+4E16><U+754C><U+4EBA><U+6743> but they indicate that Unicode charactes are imported correctly.

You can generate document-level variables based on the file names using the docvarnames and docvarsfrom argument. dvsep = "_" specifies the value separator in the filenames.encoding = "ISO-8859-1" determines character encodings of the texts.

dat_eu <- readtext(paste0(path_data, "/txt/EU_manifestos/*.txt"),
                    docvarsfrom = "filenames", 
                    docvarnames = c("unit", "context", "year", "language", "party"),
                    dvsep = "_", 
                    encoding = "ISO-8859-1")
str(dat_eu)
## Classes 'readtext' and 'data.frame':	17 obs. of  7 variables:
##  $ doc_id  : chr  "EU_euro_2004_de_PSE.txt" "EU_euro_2004_de_V.txt" "EU_euro_2004_en_PSE.txt" "EU_euro_2004_en_V.txt" ...
##  $ text    : chr  "PES · PSE · SPE European Parliament rue Wiertz B 1047 Brussels\n\nGEMEINSAM WERDEN WIR STÄRKER Fünf Verpflichtu"| __truncated__ "Gemeinsames Manifest\nGemeinsames Manifest zur Europawahl 2004 Europäischen Föderation Grüner Parteien (EFGP) \"| __truncated__ "PES · PSE · SPE European Parliament rue Wiertz B 1047 Brussels\n\nGROWING STRONGER TOGETHER Five commitments fo"| __truncated__ "Manifesto\nEuropean Elections Manifesto 2004\nCOMMON PREAMBLE\nAs adopted at 15th EFGP Council, Luxembourg, 8th"| __truncated__ ...
##  $ unit    : chr  "EU" "EU" "EU" "EU" ...
##  $ context : chr  "euro" "euro" "euro" "euro" ...
##  $ year    : int  2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 ...
##  $ language: chr  "de" "de" "en" "en" ...
##  $ party   : chr  "PSE" "V" "PSE" "V" ...

JSON

You can also read JSON files (.json) downloaded from the Twititer stream API. twitter.json is located in data directory of this tutorial package.

dat_twitter <- readtext("../data/twitter.json", source = "twitter")

The file comes with several metadata for each tweet, such as the number of retweets and likes, the username, time and time zone.

head(names(dat_twitter))
## [1] "doc_id"         "text"           "retweet_count"  "favorite_count"
## [5] "favorited"      "truncated"

PDF

readtext() can also convert and read PDF (".pdf”) files.

dat_udhr <- readtext(paste0(path_data, "/pdf/UDHR/*.pdf"), 
                      docvarsfrom = "filenames", 
                      docvarnames = c("document", "language"),
                      sep = "_")

Microsoft Word

Finally, readtext() can import Microsoft Word (".doc” and “.docx”) files.

dat_word <- readtext(paste0(path_data, "/word/*.docx"))